Cities’ summer challenge: Keep people cool while keeping COVID-19 at bay

Erika Beras Jul 24, 2020
Heard on: Marketplace
Three boys stand in the middle of the fountain in Washington Square Park in New York. Timothy A. Clary/AFP via Getty Images

Cities’ summer challenge: Keep people cool while keeping COVID-19 at bay

Erika Beras Jul 24, 2020
Three boys stand in the middle of the fountain in Washington Square Park in New York. Timothy A. Clary/AFP via Getty Images

In the age of social distancing and other efforts to limit the spread of COVID-19, cities are grappling with whether to encourage vulnerable populations to leave their homes during extreme heat and congregate under a communal air-conditioning system or stay home and hope that the summer heat doesn’t make them sick. 

“It’s a hard time because every choice we have seems to be a decision between two really bad options,” said New York University sociologist Eric Klinenberg, author of “Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago,” which examines the 1995 heat wave that killed more than 700 people in the Windy City.

The death toll in Chicago prompted cities to start opening cooling centers, places with air-conditioning systems where residents who were vulnerable to heat-induced illness could stay cool.

But air-conditioning systems can spread airborne pathogens like the novel coronavirus. 

Meanwhile, “the same communities that are vulnerable to challenges from heat are also most vulnerable to the virus as well,” said Robert Blaine, the chief administrative officer for the city of Jackson, Mississippi. Those vulnerable populations specifically are the poor, the elderly and people of color.

Jackson’s population is more than 80% Black, and in a typical summer, the city has at least 25 days when the heat index — a measure of how temperature feels to the human body — rises above 95 and it opens cooling centers.

This year, the city hasn’t opened the centers at all, Blaine said.

“We’ve been concerned about our ability, our resources, to control social distancing in those spaces,” he said. 

Cities across the country are facing the same conundrum. May was one of the world’s hottest Mays on record, and scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have predicted that this summer will be hotter than average across most of the country.

Even in a typical summer, heat kills hundreds of Americans.

“Cities can’t [just] do one or the other. They can’t either protect their citizens from heat or protect their citizens from COVID-19,” said Kristie Ebi, who researches the health risks of climate variability at the University of Washington. “They have to do both.” 

Before the pandemic, people had a lot of options when the weather got hot, said sociologist Klinenberg. 

“A cooling center doesn’t have to be a government building with the words ‘Cooling Center’ stamped on it. It can be a mall, it can be a movie theater, it can be a restaurant, it can be a coffee shop,” he said. “The problem this summer is that many of those places are closed.”

And that’s forced city officials to improvise, Klinenberg said. “Instead of careful planning, now we’re getting all sorts of ad hoc measures.”

Phoenix has used its convention center as a cooling center. Philadelphia parked city buses with the AC running. New York City is giving away air conditioners to eligible residents.

Meanwhile, other cities aren’t doing anything because they’re under state orders not to congregate in large groups. 

Mark Stemen, a professor at California State University, Chico, who teaches sustainability and climate action, worked on the city’s extreme heat plan. Chico’s cooling centers aren’t open, he said, and that’s a problem because the city has recently gained around 20,000 residents who were displaced by wildfires. 

“These disasters kind of stack up on top of each other. It’s just become more and more difficult for a community like ours,” Stemen said. 

For now, the city’s distributing cold water to homeless camps and low-income residents as temperatures climb above 100 degrees. At the same time, officials are trying to limit the spread of COVID-19 and planning how to deal with this year’s wildfire season. 

And with all of that going on, Stemen said, Chico doesn’t have the capacity to make long-term plans. 

COVID-19 Economy FAQs

How many people are flying? Has traveled picked up?

Flying is starting to recover to levels the airline industry hasn’t seen in months. The Transportation Security Administration announced on Oct. 19 that it’s screened more than 1 million passengers on a single day — its highest number since March 17. The TSA also screened more than 6 million passengers last week, its highest weekly volume since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. While travel is improving, the TSA announcement comes amid warnings that the U.S. is in the third wave of the coronavirus. There are now more than 8 million cases in the country, with more than 219,000 deaths.

How are Americans feeling about their finances?

Nearly half of all Americans would have trouble paying for an unexpected $250 bill and a third of Americans have less income than before the pandemic, according to the latest results of our Marketplace-Edison Poll. Also, 6 in 10 Americans think that race has at least some impact on an individual’s long-term financial situation, but Black respondents are much more likely to think that race has a big impact on a person’s long-term financial situation than white or Hispanic/Latinx respondents.

Find the rest of the poll results here, which cover how Americans have been faring financially about six months into the pandemic, race and equity within the workplace and some of the key issues Trump and Biden supporters are concerned about.

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A report out recently from the accounting consultancy BDO USA said 29 big retailers filed for bankruptcy protection through August. And if bankruptcies continue at that pace, the number could rival the bankruptcies of 2010, after the Great Recession. For retailers, the last three months of this year will be even more critical than usual for their survival as they look for some hope around the holidays.

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