As fears about more transmissible variants of COVID-19 heighten, a growing number of experts have urged the public to wear better masks, particularly front-line essential workers who face the highest risks and spend the most time indoors with others.
Mysheka Ronquillo works part time at a fast-food restaurant in Los Angeles, one of the worst hotspots for the virus in the country. Sometimes she gets disposable paper masks at work, but supplies often run low, so she wears her own cloth one. It’s a big difference from her other job as a home health care aid for two older patients.
“They have everything right at the front door,” she said. “As soon as I walk in, I change from my cloth masks. They have KN95 masks.”
Those filter at least 95% of small airborne particles, one of the primary drivers of COVID-19 transmission. Infectious aerosols build up in the air as people speak and breathe, putting workers at risk when they spend long periods of time indoors with others, as fast-food workers must do.
Ronquillo said several co-workers at the restaurant have gotten sick, and she worries about bringing the virus home, where she lives with five family members, including her mom.
“I’m very concerned, because there’s 10 to 15 people in the space at work, and you’re literally side by side,” she said.
As the virus has become more pervasive and potentially more transmissible, the risk has multiplied, said Monica Gandhi, an infectious disease doctor at University of California, San Francisco. That increased risk means workers need increased protection.
“It’s not that cloth masks don’t work,” she said. “They do block a lot of the virus, but they don’t block all of it. If you’re in these indoor spaces, I would wear a stronger mask.”
Disposable N95 respirators are still best reserved for health care workers she said, because supplies are limited and they must be specially fit and tested. But there are better alternatives than just cloth, and Gandhi worries that message has gotten lost.
“The tale of masks is a very woeful one in the United States,” she said.
In the earliest days of the pandemic, officials like former Surgeon General Jerome Adams said not to wear masks, tweeting in February “Seriously people- STOP BUYING MASKS! They are NOT effective in preventing general public from catching #Coronavirus, but if healthcare providers can’t get them to care for sick patients, it puts them and our communities at risk!”
Once asymptomatic spread was understood, prompting calls for widespread masking, supplies of standard medical masks were short — not just for disposable N95s, but the thinner paper surgical masks.
Americans were advised to make their own cloth masks out of household materials, and clothing companies began selling cloth masks of varying quality.
The message that N95’s are only for health care workers and everyone else can just use whatever they can find has kind of stuck, Gandhi said.
“It was a blunt way of thinking,” she said. “It wasn’t nuanced. And it wasn’t correct.”
“Any mask is better than no mask,” he said. “But there’s a hierarchy of different solutions.”
He and two Harvard Medical School partners analyzed all of the available consumer options. The best, they determined, is a reusable elastomeric N95, the kind made of a stretchy silicone or plastic material and often used for construction, though they do make the wearer appear somewhat like Darth Vader.
“They’re not exactly the most stylish things,” Srikrishna said, but they’re widely available, unlike disposable N95s. They fit better, are more comfortable and provide the same level of protection.
In November, the New York City Fire Department began using elastomeric N95s in the field.
As virus cases have mounted in Los Angeles, fast-food worker Ronquillo has improvised her own solution: doubling up.
“Most of the time, I have on a cloth mask that comes down my neck, and then I’ll put another mask over that,” she said.
Gandhi at UC San Francisco said the best combination is a standard surgical mask, which uses materials that help trap viral particles with static electricity, layered with a washable cloth mask. It doesn’t matter which mask goes on first, but Gandhi said she likes to put the washable cloth next to the face so the paper mask lasts longer.
“It really isn’t about thickness, it’s about the physical properties of those two masks being layered on top of each other,” Gandhi said. “That blocks the virus almost as effectively as an N95.”
COVID-19 Economy FAQs
What’s the outlook for vaccine supply?
Chief executives of America’s COVID-19 vaccine makers promised in congressional testimony to deliver the doses promised to the U.S. government by summer. The projections of confidence come after months of supply chain challenges and companies falling short of year-end projections for 2020. What changed? In part, drugmakers that normally compete are now actually helping one another. This has helped solve several supply chain issues, but not all of them.
How has the pandemic changed scientific research?
Over the past year, while some scientists turned their attention to COVID-19 and creating vaccines to fight it, most others had to pause their research — and re-imagine how to do it. Social distancing, limited lab capacity — “It’s less fun, I have to say. Like, for me the big part of the science is discussing the science with other people, getting excited about projects,” said Isabella Rauch, an immunologist at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland. Funding is also a big question for many.
What happened to all of the hazard pay essential workers were getting at the beginning of the pandemic?
Almost a year ago, when the pandemic began, essential workers were hailed as heroes. Back then, many companies gave hazard pay, an extra $2 or so per hour, for coming in to work. That quietly went away for most of them last summer. Without federal action, it’s mostly been up to local governments to create programs and mandates. They’ve helped compensate front-line workers, but they haven’t been perfect. “The solutions are small. They’re piecemeal,” said Molly Kinder at the Brookings Institution’s Metropolitan Policy Program. “You’re seeing these innovative pop-ups because we have failed overall to do something systematically.”
News and information you need, from a source you trust.
In a world where it’s easier to find disinformation than real information, trustworthy journalism is critical to our democracy and our everyday lives. And you rely on Marketplace to be that objective, credible source, each and every day.
This vital work isn’t possible without you. Marketplace is sustained by our community of Investors—listeners, readers, and donors like you who believe that a free press is essential – and worth supporting.